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ADHD / Nutrition and Neurotransmitters

Blum, et. al., “Attention-deficit-hyperactivity Disorder and reward deficiency syndrome,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2008:4(5) 893-917, p. 893-917.

Kuznetsova, et al., “A Model for Modulation of Neuronal Synchronization by D4 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated Phospholipid Methylation,” J Comput Neurosci, (2008) 24: p. 314-329.

Lakhan, et al. “Nutritional Therapies for Mental Disorders” Nutritional Journal, Jan. 2008; 7:2.

Rucklidge, et al., “Nutrient Supplementation Approaches in the Treatment of ADHD,” Expert Rev Neurother, 2009; 9(4), p. 461-476.

Shaheen, et al., “Nutritional Therapies for Mental Disorders,” Nutritional Journal, 2008, 7, 2: p. 1-8.

EPA/DHA

Antalis, C.J., et al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status in Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2006. 75(4-5): p. 299-308.

Belanger, et. al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acid Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study,” Pediatric Child Health, 2009; 14(2): p. 89-98.

Bloch, et. al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, October 2011; 50(10) p. 991-1000.

Bos, et. al., “Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Neuropsychopharmacology, (2015) 40, p. 2298-2306.

Burgess, J.R., et al., “Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Am J Clin Nutr, 2000. 71(1 Suppl): p. 327S-30S.

Colter, A.L., et. al., “Fatty Acid Status and Behavioral Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Case-Control Study,” Nutr J, 2008. 7: p. 8.

Gow, R.V., et al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acids Are Related to Abnormal Emotion Processing in Adolescent Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2013. 88(6): p. 419-29.

Gow, R.V., et al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Related To Callous And Unemotional Traits In Adolescent Boys With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2013. 88(6): p. 411-8.

Gustafsson, et. al., “EPA Supplementation Improves Teacher-Rated Behavior and Oppositional Symptoms in Children with ADHD.” Acta Paediatr 2010; 99: 1540–1549.

Johnson, et. al., “Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents,” Journal of Attention Disorders, 2008, p. 1-8.

Konig, et al., “Critical Appraisal of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2016: 12, p. 1869-1882.

Milte, et. al., “Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids, Cognition, and Behavior in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Nutrition, (2012) 28; p. 670-677.

Ramprasath, et. al., “Enhanced Increase of Omega-3 Index in Healthy Individuals with Response to 4-Week n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation from Krill Oil Versus Fish Oil,” Lipids in Health and Disease, 2013, 12: p. 178.

Raz, et al., “Essential Fatty Acids and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review,” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2009, 51; p. 580-592.

Raz, et. al., “The Influence of Short-Chain Essential Fatty Acids on Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2009; p. 167-177.

Richardson, et. al., “A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Effects of Supplementation with Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids on ADHD-Related Symptoms in Children with Specific Learning Difficulties,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biological Psychiatry, 26 (2002) p. 233-239.

Richardson, et. al., “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Dietary Supplementation with Fatty Acids in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder,” Pediatrics, 115(5): 1360-1366.

Richardson, et. al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in ADHD and Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders,” International Review of Psychiatry, April 2006; 18 (2): p. 155-172.

Schuchart, et al., “Significance of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) for the Development and Behavior of Children,” Eur J Pediatr, (2010) 169: p. 149-164.

Stevens, L.J., et al., “Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Am J Clin Nutr, 1995. 62(4): p. 761-8.

Sinn, et. al., “Cognitive effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: A Randomized Trial,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fats, 78 (2008) p. 311-326.

Sorgi, et. al., “Effects of an Open-Label Pilot Study with High-Dose EPA/DHA Concentrates on Plasma Phospholipids and Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Nutrition Journal, 2007; 6:16, p. 1-8.

Young, et al., “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Neuropsychiatric Disorders,” Reprod Nutr Dev, 2005. 45(1): p. 1-28.

Young, et. al., “Blood Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis of Adults with And Without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” Lipids, 2004. 39(2): p. 117-23.

Zimmer, et. al., “Chronic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet-Deficiency Acts on Dopamine Metabolism in the Rat Frontal Cortex: A Microdialysis Study,” Neuroscience Letters, 240 (1998) p. 177-181.

Nutrient Supplementation

Gordon, et al., “Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study,” J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015 Dec 1; 25(10): p. 783–798.

Richardson, et. al., “A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Effects of Supplementation with Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids on ADHD-Related Symptoms in Children with Specific Learning Difficulties,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biological Psychiatry, 26 (2002) p. 233-239.

Rucklidge, et. al., “Broad-Spectrum Micronutrient Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Rationale and Evidence to Date,”

Rucklidge, et. al., “Vitamin-mineral Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Double Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, (2014) 204, p. 306-315.

Rucklidge, et. al., “Vitamin-mineral Treatment of ADHD in Adults: A 1-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of Attention Disorders, 2014: p. 1-11.

Rucklidge, et. al., “Moderators of Treatment Response in Adults with ADHD treated with a Vitamin-Mineral Supplement,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 50 (2014) p. 163-171.

Rucklidge, et. al., “Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence From an 8 Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension,” Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(1) 2011, p. 79-91.

Rucklidge, et. al., “Vitamin-Mineral Treatment Improves Aggression and Emotional Regulation in Children with ADHD: A Fully Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2017: p. 1-15.

Sinn, et al. “Effect of Supplementation with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Micronutrients on Learning and Behavior Problems Associated with Child ADHD,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Problems, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jan. 2007, p. 82-91.

Folate

Desai, et. al., “The Metabolic Basis for Developmental Disorders Due to Defective Folate Transport,” Biochimie, (2016) Jul; 126: p. 31-42.

Ganz, Ariel, ‘Genetic Impairments in Folate Enzymes Increase Dependence on Dietary Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Production at the Expense of Betaine Synthesis,” The FASEB Journal; February 2017, Vol. 30, No. 10, p. 3321-3333.

Gokcen, et. al., “Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Children with Attention Deficit Disorder,” Int. J. Med. Sci., 2011;8 p. 523-528.

Kamdar, et. al. “Folate Pathway Polymorphisms Predict Deficits in Attention and Processing Speeds After Childhood Leukemia Therapy,” Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2011; 57: p. 454-460.

Kuznetsova, et. al. “A model for modulation of neuronal synchronization by D4 dopamine receptor-mediated phospholipid methylation,” J Comput Neurosci, (2008) 23: p. 314-329.

Saha, et al. “A Pilot Study on the Contribution of Folate Gene Variants in the Cognitive Function of ADHD Probands,” Neurochem Res, (2014) 39: p. 2058-2067.

B12

Shaw, et al., “A Possible Biological Mechanism for the B Vitamins Altering Behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pharm Med, 2010; 24 (5): p. 289-294.

B6

Coleman, et al., “A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Pyridoxine Administration in a Subgroup of Hyperkinetic Children: A Double-Blind Crossover Comparison with Methylphenidate,” Biological Psychiatry, October 1979; 14(5): p. 741-51.

Landaas, et al., “Vitamin Levels in Adults with ADHD,” BJPsych Openi, (2016) 2, p. 377-384.

Mousain-Bosc, et al., “Improvement of Neurobehavioral Disorders in Children Supplemented with Magnesium-Vitamin B6 in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders,” Magnesium Research, 2006; 19(1): p. 46-52.

Mousain-Bosc, et al., “Magnesium Vit B6 Intake Reduces Central Nervous System Hyperexcitability in Children,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, October (2004); 23(5): p. 545S-548S.

D3

Goksugur, et al., “Vitamin D Status in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics International, August 2014; 56(4): p. 515-19.

Patrick, et. al., “Vitamin D and the Omega-3 Fatty Acids Control Serotonin Synthesis and Action, part 2: Relevance for ADHD, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Impulsive Behavior,” The FASEB Journal, February 2017, Vol. 29, No. 6, p: 2207-2222.

Sharif, et al., “The Relationship Between Serum Vitamin D Level and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Fall 2015; 9(4): p. 48-53.

Magnesium

Baza, et at., “Magnesium Supplementation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, (2016) 17, p. 63-70.

Ghanizadeh, et al., “A systemic Review of Magnesium Therapy for Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, July 2013, 16(7): p. 412-17.

Kozielec, et al., “Assessment of Magnesium Levels in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Magnesium Research, June 1997; 10(2): p. 143-148.

Mousain-Bosc, et al., “Improvement of Neurobehavioral Disorders in Children Supplemented with Magnesium-Vitamin B6 in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders,” Magnesium Research, 2006; 19(1): p. 46-52.

Slutsky, et al., “Enhancement of Learning Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium,” Nueron, January 2010: 65, p. 165-177.

Villagomez, et. al., “Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Children, 2014, 1: 261-279.

Phospholipid

Liu, et. al., “Higher efficacy of dietary DHA provided as a phospholipid than as a triglyceride for brain DHA accretion in neonatal piglets,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 55, 2014, p. 531-539.

Lagarde et. al., “Lysophosphatidylcholine as a Preferred Carrier Form of Docosahexaenoic Acid to the Brain, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, Vol. 16, Nov. 2001, p . 201-204.

Ramprasath, et al., “Enhanced Increase of Omega-3 Index in Healthy Individuals with Response to 4-Week n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation from Krill Oil versus Fish Oil,” Lipids in Health and Disease, 2013, 12: p. 178.

Schuchardt, et al., “Incorporation of EPA and DHA into Plasma Phospholipids in Response to Different Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations – a Comparative Bioavailability Study of Fish Oil vs. Krill Oil,” Lipids in Health Disease, 2011; 10, 145: p. 1-7.

Ulven, et al., “Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA,” Lipids, 2011; 46(1): p. 37-46.

Vaisman, et. al., “Correlation Between Changes in Blood Fatty Acid Composition and Visual Sustained Attention Performance in Children with Inattention: Effect of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acids Containing Phospholipids,” Am J Clin Nutr, 2008; 87: p. 1170-80.

Virmani, K., “Health Benefits of Phospholipids: The Effects of Phosphatidylcholine And Phosphatidylserine On Cognitive Function,” Human Nutrition Lucas Meyer GmbH and Co., 1999(4, Scand. Suppl): p. 17-19.

Zinc

Akhondzadeh, et al., “Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A double blind and randomized trial,” BMC Psychiatry, 2004, 4:9.

Arnold, et al., “Does Hair Zinc Predict Amphetamine Improvement of Add/Hyperactivity?,” International Journal of Neuroscience, 1990: 50:1-2, p. 103-107.

Bekarglu, et al., “Relation between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a research note.” J Child Psychol Psychiat, 1996, 37: 225-227.

Toren, et al. “Zinc deficiency in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 40, Issue 12, 1308 – 1310.

Uçkardeş et al., “Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children,” Acta Paediatr. 2009 Apr; 98 (4): p. 731-6.

Villagomez, et. al., “Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Children, 2014, 1: 261-279.

Iron

Biederman J, Faraone SV. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 366(9481), 237–248 (2005).

Konofal, et al, “Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2004; 158: 1113-5.

Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T. Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr. Rev. 64, S34–S43 (2006).

Youdim MB, Yehuda S. The neurochemical basis of cognitive deficits induced by brain iron deficiency: involvement of dopamine–opiate system. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-Grand) 46(3), 491–500 (2000).

Villagomez, et. al., “Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Children, 2014, 1: 261-279.

MTHFR

Gokcen, C. et al. “Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011; 8(7): p. 523-528.

Kamdar, et al., “Folate Pathway Polymorphisms Predict Deficits in Attention and Processing Speed After Childhood Leukemia Therapy,” Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2011; 57: p. 454-460.

Krull KR, et al. “Folate Pathway Genetic Polymorphisms are Related to Attention Disorders in Child-hood Leukemia Survivors,” J Pediatr. 2008 Jan; 152(1): p. 101-5.

Spellicy, et al., “Folate Metabolism Gene 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Is Associated with ADHD in Myelomeningocele Patients,” PLOS One, Dec. 2012, Vol. 7, Issue 12.

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